The indulgence of the taxi industry has been refractory for many years. The public complained that it is difficult to take a taxi. The taxi driver opposes the "squeezing" of the operating company. However, the call for many years and the long-term struggle, the solidification of the management system has made all the doubts in the past seem weak, in exchange for Just sympathy and a little comfort.
However, this time, the Internet-based car is having a subversive impact on the taxi industry, forcing managers and taxi operators to reform, and there are indications that this reform will no longer be a symbolic appeasement, but Reshape the entire industry.
First-line investigation Internet car attack taxi reform saw On the afternoon of May 27, more than 100 taxi drivers in Zhengzhou, Henan Province, encircled the car, and the final car was unrecognizable. The local police reported that after the initial investigation, the incident was caused by the taxi driver's dissatisfaction with the car to seize the market.
Since May, 16 cities across the country have resisted car accidents. Although the methods of boycott are not the same, the contradictions behind them are the same: Drip taxis, fast taxis, Uber (Uber) and other car calling software launched. The car service has seriously affected the income of traditional taxi drivers. Whether the previous private car provided the car service is an "illegal operation" problem, there is still no national level.
On May 21, Wang Liang, deputy director of the Transportation Service Department of the Ministry of Transport, revealed that the deepening of the taxi industry reform working group has come up with the first draft of the taxi industry reform, and is seeking opinions from all parties and promptly revise it. Regarding the new travel mode brought by the special car, the management departments at all levels have a supportive attitude as a whole, but they also emphasize the normativeness.
At the same time, from the central to the local government, many government departments are mulling a special car to "regulate" taxis. For example, Zhejiang Yiwu proposed reform measures to release taxi licenses, which is considered to be â€œdaringâ€. More places are still exploring reform measures in line with local conditions. An "industry market, crisis" triggered by the Internet, and the collision of old and new economic forms are "forced" in the reform of the taxi industry.
Special car squeezed taxi living space Shenzhen taxi driver Zhu Zhihong almost "encountered" the most difficult period of his career.
"Only after the SARS, the income per day is less than 200. In the past, the daily gross income was more than 800 yuan, and now only five or six hundred yuan, all of which are special cars." On May 26, the scale of the special car is growing. Zhu Zhihong's mood is also not happy.
Shenzhen, a young and economically active coastal open city, has become the â€œsweetâ€ in the eyes of major taxi app companies since the launch of the special car service. At present, the special service of Didi, Express, Uber has entered the Shenzhen market.
Taking Didi and Fast as an example, the special car service of the two companies covered Shenzhen as early as the middle of last year. Zhu Pingdou, vice president of Didi, previously revealed that the number of special car orders in Shenzhen ranks fourth in the country.
In just nine months from August last year to the present, the â€œspecial car serviceâ€ launched by the call-to-car software such as Drip Punch and Fast Taxi has attracted passengers by subsidizing electronic coupons. The number of "internet cars" has grown from scratch. In some cities, all orders placed through mobile APPs, car orders almost occupy "half of the country", and even more.
Zhu Zhihong told reporters that on May 25th, the radio broadcast on the taxi reported that the number of orders in Shenzhen was about 6,700, and the number of special cars was nearly 4,000.
The â€œspecial car serviceâ€ launched by the car calling software has enabled the strategy of â€œburning moneyâ€ to cultivate the market from the very beginning. In order to rapidly expand the "special car" market, taxi companies such as "Drip Dock" have issued a large number of electronic car coupons to subsidize passengers, ranging from a few yuan to tens of yuan. In addition, when the passenger does not get a special car at a certain time, the software will also give the driver a subsidy to prompt the driver to take the order.
"There is no obvious feeling in April, and the income per day is tens of fewer pieces. However, since May, the number of coupons for special vehicles has increased, and our daily income has been reduced by at least a quarter." Zhu Zhihong said.
"When I open the best rental, I can save 8,000 yuan to the bank in one month." Zhu Zhihong said.
According to statistics, there are 16,000 taxis in Shenzhen, and nearly half of them are driving in the air during the day. The income of the buddies has dropped by 1/3, and they have to lengthen the driving time.
It is also the overall income of the taxi driver group that has plummeted, making the contradiction between taxis and Internet buses increasingly fierce.
On the afternoon of May 27, more than 100 taxi drivers from Zhengzhou, Henan Province, drove the drip car, and the final car was unrecognizable. The local police reported that after the initial investigation, the incident was caused by the taxi driver's dissatisfaction with the drip car to seize the market. Since May alone, 16 cities across the country have seen a boycott of private cars.
On the one hand, there are many cars to resist the car, and on the other hand, the major taxi companies continue to â€œburn moneyâ€ to grab the market.
On May 22nd, Didi quickly announced that it will start to invest 1 billion yuan to promote the express train business in the early morning of May 25, and launch the â€œFree People Free Shuttleâ€ campaign in 12 cities across the country. Passengers in 12 cities receive a free 15 yuan express train per week, covering approximately 10 kilometers.
According to research reports, by 2013, there were more than 1.03 million taxis in the country, and the number of national Internet buses was not published. However, the founder of Didi, the CEO of Didi, announced the first set of data for the first time: Didi's fast taxi business covers 360 cities across the country, 1.35 million drivers, and orders for 4 million daily; the car covers 61 cities, 400,000 drivers, the daily order is up to 1.5 million.
He said that the daily peak of 6 million is the world's largest traffic trading platform, which is six times that of the world's second.
According to reports, at the end of last year, before the merger of the fast taxi and the dip taxi, the two occupied the leading position of the cumulative account share of the Chinese taxi APP market by 54.4% and 44.9% respectively.
In fact, after the launch of the â€œDrip Special Carâ€ business in â€œDrip Dripâ€ in August last year, the freshness of the new business has only lasted for two or three months, dripping taxis, fast taxis, etc. The "special car service" launched by the car calling software was suspended in Nanjing, Beijing, Shanghai, etc. because of some disputes, because some private car services were suspected of "illegal operation" of private cars.
At the end of November last year, the Nanjing Traffic Management Department investigated and dealt with two â€œDrip Special Vehiclesâ€ suspected of illegal operations. The Nanjing Municipal Passenger Management Office has publicly stated that it is illegal for private cars or other non-rental vehicles to engage in any paid operation. Once seized, they will be treated as "black cars"; car rental companies will not operate a lease contract, which means illegal operation. This means that Nanjing has clearly called the â€œspecial car serviceâ€ launched by the company.
Different from the taxi operation mode, according to the promotion of a taxi software, the car is a â€œthree-way cooperationâ€. Within the government's permission policy, the rental company provides vehicles and labor companies to provide drivers and car platforms to integrate all parties' resources. However, the two special vehicles inspected by Nanjing are all anchored vehicles.
In fact, since January this year, local administrative departments have launched a crackdown on special vehicles, mainly targeting some private cars.
In January of this year, Beijing Traffic Law Enforcement Department stated that it would vigorously crack down on social vehicles that use the Internet and mobile phone software to engage in illegal operations. Law enforcement agencies have said that the current "special car" service provided by multiple software is actually providing black cars for passengers in disguise, and there are many "clone taxis". This is the first time that Beijing publicly recognized that private cars are illegally operated through taxi software.
The relevant person in charge of the Beijing Traffic Law Enforcement Corps told reporters that 71% of all the â€œspecial carsâ€ found by the Beijing Law Enforcement Corps belong to the nature of private cars. The operation mode of such vehicles is obviously illegal.
Almost all kinds of Internet car calling services have been stopped in many places because of the same operational legitimacy. By January of this year, more than ten cities including Shanghai, Jinan, Qingdao, Shenyang, Nanjing, Chongqing, and Hangzhou had stopped the special car service of many companies, and positioned the car as a â€œblack carâ€. Many places also staged taxi stops. The event of the event.
However, APP companies that provide car services do not agree with this. Zhu Pingdou, vice president of Drip Trolley Company, said in an interview with the media that Didi Special Vehicle is an innovative model. The information between vehicles, drivers and passengers is transparent. Through information platform and pricing system, pricing and payment are realized. "Can't say that we are 'black cars', the information between the 'black car' drivers and passengers is opaque, the price is opaque, there is no organization management, and it is impossible to supervise."
On the other hand, the stoppage of local government departments is not a ban, and taxi app companies continue to â€œburn moneyâ€ subsidies.
At the end of last year, the Ministry of Communications responded with a statement that â€œthe Ministry of Communications will conduct research on some new problems brought about by the Internet booking carâ€, and injected a booster into the â€œspecial car serviceâ€ market. However, in January this year, the Ministry of Communications also stated that it is forbidden to participate in the private car access platform.
At this year's National Conference, Yang Chuantang, Minister of Communications, once said, "The new model of 'special car' service has a positive effect on meeting the high quality, diversification and differentiation needs of the transportation market." But he also suggested that any operational services should be followed. Market rules to maintain a fair market order.
According to people close to the Ministry of Communications, as early as the beginning of this year, the senior officials of the Ministry of Communications specially greeted the heads of transportation departments of some key cities, hoping that they would not intensify the contradiction between special vehicles and taxis, and set up taxi reforms for the Ministry of Time. The plan, after all, the emergence of new things requires a series of research and argumentation processes.
In February of this year, Didi, quickly announced the merger. In the following March, the combined DDT quickly released the "Internet Car Service Management and Passenger Security Standards" (hereinafter referred to as "Standards").
This "standard" regulates the operation of "special car" from the aspects of vehicle access, driver access, and vehicle safety supervision. Vehicle access standards require that the age of the vehicle be less than five years, and both high-end models of well-known brands are required. The hard criteria for driver access include: the driver has more than three years of driving experience; must pass training and exams before entering the job.
In response to security issues, the "standards" proposed advance payment, in addition to the basic traffic insurance and commercial insurance of vehicles, the establishment of a claims fund, the fund will pay compensation for the accidents that occurred during the experience of the car service.
However, the report said that the transportation department said that the "standard" is not an industry normative document formulated by the government.
Legislation and reform While the Internet has resisted many places, it is almost a side of public opinion. It is believed that the monopoly of the taxi industry should be eliminated as soon as possible.
The car was born out of the mobile Internet industry. From the day of its birth, its operating model is very different from the traditional taxi industry.
In the traditional taxi industry, the government department approves the number of city taxis and issues licenses. The taxi company obtains it by auction or by way of transfer, and then delivers it to the taxi driver. The driver pays the management fee, which is the â€œmoney moneyâ€. There is a big difference in the money between the localities. The money for the Beijing Double Shuttle is about 7,000 yuan per month, and the electric taxis in Shenzhen are more than 20,000 yuan. Cutting the money of taxis is almost the most appealing voice in the taxi industry in the past decade.
According to the population of the city, the operation license is issued according to a certain proportion. The advantage is that the vacancy rate can be reduced, and the interests of the vehicle operators are guaranteed to a certain extent. However, because of the high â€œmoney moneyâ€ and the lack of capacity for many years, the industry is not competitive enough. The industry is also considered a monopoly industry.
In recent years, with the increasing demand for taxi travel, the difficulty of taxiing in various places has also received much attention. Taking Beijing as an example, relevant data shows that in the past ten years, Beijing taxis have remained at around 66,000, but their permanent population has increased from 10 million to the current 20 million.
It is worth mentioning that, because taxi licenses are scarce or even have monopoly resources, the auction prices around the world will also follow the market. Taking Shenzhen as an example, from the earliest government approval and issuance, each license fee is 19,000 yuan to the public auction license. The Shenzhen taxi license has appreciated more than 100 times in 20 years, and the highest price of taxi license has reached 1 million yuan.
The income distribution mode of the special car is that the driver brings the car to join the drip car to pay 20% of the fare.
"From my personal point of view, I don't want to legalize the car. If it is legal, it will take my job. But this requires the government to take advice. If it is legal, the taxi industry must reform." Zhu Zhihong said that such appeals are widespread. Exist in his peers.
Pushing the reforms In the eyes of the industry, it is time to push the taxi industry to reform the taxi market. Before the final reform plan was introduced by the Ministry of Communications, the exploration of reforms in various places was advancing.
Zhejiang Yiwu's move to introduce the "Taxis Reform Operation Plan" in early May this year was called "breaking ice" by the Chinese taxi industry. The highlight of Yiwu's reform is to liberalize the market and reduce the â€œmoney moneyâ€: in 2016, all taxi operating rights will be cancelled; from 2018, the number of taxis will no longer be controlled; the fare will be priced by the market; ".
On May 21, the Ministry of Transport clearly expressed support for the Yiwu taxi reform plan at the press conference held on the 21st, and said that Yiwuâ€™s attempt provided reference and demonstration for the reform of the national taxi industry.
Wang Limei, secretary general of the China Road Transport Association, said that the taxi reform plan in Yiwu is likely to be replicated in small and medium-sized cities. It may be copied in cities with limited traffic constraints and environmental constraints, but for large cities, there is not much reference.
"In cities such as Beijing and Tianjin, citizens have to shake their numbers when they buy a car, and they have to limit their driving. How can taxi access and quantity control be released? After the release, the result may be that everyone is stuck on the road." Wang Limei said .
Shan Jingjing, a researcher at the Institute of Urban and Environmental Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, said that for the traffic management department, once the quantity control is released, if there is a problem and then it is difficult to recover, there will be a policy violation. In addition, if the taxi price is completely freely priced by each company, in the case of imperfect systems, it is very likely that the taxi company will conspire to raise the price. Therefore, although the reform plan of Yiwu is a breakthrough in the system, there are still many risks that need attention in practice, and it is not suitable for promotion in a large scale at present.
Guangdong is also planning a taxi industry reform. On May 19th, the â€œRegulations on the Management of Taxi Passenger Transport in Guangzhouâ€ was held for the second time in the Standing Committee of the Guangzhou Municipal People's Congress.
The focus of this revision is on the part of the car rental, and the expression of the taxi capacity indicator remains.
According to reports, the content of the draft in Guangzhou shows that â€œwhen engaging in the appointment of a taxi, it should be approved by the traffic administrative department, that is, it must be qualified according to law.â€ At the same time, the passengers can only be provided with operational services through appointments, hospitality at the agreed locations, and no cruises; operators who subscribe to the taxi information service platform should establish information services in accordance with the requirements of the industry information access technology standards. The platform and the city traffic administrative department to achieve information sharing, interconnection and interoperability.
It is understood that Shenzhen City will introduce taxi reform measures in June. Zhu Zhihong told reporters that the current plan is that taxi companies and drivers will adopt a split mode, such as four or six; or reduce the money.
Judging from the taxi reforms that have been publicized in various places, the legality of special vehicles is not difficult. However, whether to ban private car operations and how to supervise it is currently the focus of attention.
In response to Uber's policy and legal issues in China, Uber's founder Travis Kalannik said in an interview with China that he is willing to cooperate with local governments to explore special vehicle compliance. Mode. At present, Uber has 9 cities including Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Hangzhou and Chengdu.
In fact, local governments have also explored cooperation with Internet companies to promote the legalization of private cars. Cheng Wei revealed that in mid-May, the company has reached a cooperation with the Shanghai Transportation Commission on the taxi strategic platform. The two sides will also explore a pilot program for the legalization of special vehicles within one to two months.
"The first thing to admit is the status quo. Now there is indeed this demand. Second, no matter how it is, it must be under control. The third one cannot be used in the traditional way. Now it is necessary to consider the new format by means of the Internet. Sun Jianping, director of the Shanghai Municipal Transportation Commission, said in an interview with the media.
However, for the current car drivers, the legality of the car is not all good news.
The drip driver in Shenzhen is worried about the master. If the legal car is strengthened, the life of the car will not be better. For example, if the passenger complaint is accepted, will it be punished by the company? After the passenger cancels the order, does the reduction in rating affect the income? Will the driver be subject to double punishment if he violates the rules? Without subsidies, will the demand for special vehicles be reduced?
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